CONDITIONS OF POSSIBILITY FOR THE OVERREPRESENTATION OF HOMELESSNESS AMONG INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
The conditions of possibility for the appearance of many of the issues facing Indigenous Peoples (including homelessness) can often be traced to colonization and ongoing systemic oppression. According to Daniel, and Cukier (2015) homelessness among Indigenous Peoples is often rooted in factors linked to our current social structures and history, where this population has often “suffered terribly from the effects of colonization and whose current social, economic, and political conditions have placed them in a deeply disadvantaged position”. (p.52). Hulchanski, Campsie, Chau, Hwang, and Paradis (2009) also notes that the “historical legacies of residential schools and community displacement all play a role” in homelessness among Indigenous Peoples (p.8). With the former in mind, addressing homelessness among Indigenous Peoples must include a serious examination of Canada’s colonial history and how it is upheld through harmful (dominant and frequently taken for granted) ideology that is often deeply embedded in our social policies and structures (i.e. government, welfare, courts, academia,etc.).
SUPPORTING SERVICE USERS: WHY SOCIAL WORKERS SHOULD ADOPT A MICRO AND MACRO APPROACH TO CARE
As a social worker who adopts an anti-oppressive practice, I often collaborate with service users (i.e. service users of Indigenous ancestry) to deconstruct how their personal challenges (i.e. homelessness) might be connected to history and larger political systems. With this in mind, we often work together to explore how their personal challenges might be linked to the many ways that systemic racism is manifested through our various social systems (government, welfare, courts, academia, etc.). According to Matthews (2017) systemic racism “concerns the unjust distribution of power that is built into law, policy and economic practice. It is the imposition and perpetuation of inequities through governance, rather than through individual intention, decision or behaviour” (p.1). Systemic racism can be insidious, as it is not always intentional but is instead often embedded in various social policies and systems. As such, it can be easier in a direct encounter to point to someone and say “you are racist”, but when racism is embedded in systems it becomes increasingly harder to identify and address. To mitigate inequities related to race, and to help address the overrepresentation of homelessness among Indigenous Peoples we need to seriously examine Canada’s colonial history and how it is upheld through harmful ideologies that are often deeply embedded in our social policies and structures (i.e. government, welfare, courts, academia,etc.).
For me, using an anti-oppressive social work practice entails approaching social and service user issues from a structural perspective, by trying to ensure that the personal challenges of service users (i.e. homelessness) are understood and concurrently addressed with larger social issues (i.e. neoliberal ideologies influencing government policies around housing and precarious work). Using this approach involves tackling service user issues from both a micro level (i.e. helping service users to find housing) and a macro level (i.e. intervening in large systems, like government, to lobby for affordable housing in Canada). I strongly believe that using this model of care empowers service users, by helping to disrupt the dominant discourse that blames service users for structural inequities that serve to disadvantage them.
Note: The first featured image is a picture of an art installation that hangs in the Native Child and Family Services
References used in article:
- Baines, D. (2011). Doing Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Justice Social Work (2nd ed). Halifax: Fernwood Books, Ltd.
- Baskin, C. (2011). Strong helpers’ teachings: The value of Indigenous knowledges in the helping professions. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.
- Canadian Observatory on Homelessness (2012) Canadian Definition of Homelessness. The Homeless Hub. Retrieved from: http://www.homelesshub.ca/homelessdefinition/
- Daniel, L., and Cukier, W. (2015). Addressing the Discrimination Experienced by Somali Canadians and Racialized LGBTQ Homeless Youth in Toronto. The Homeless Hub. Retrieved from: http://homelesshub.ca/resource/addressing-discrimination-experienced-somali-canadians-and-racialized-lgbtq-homeless-youth
- Fook, J. (2012). Chapter 7: Critical deconstruction and reconstruction. Social work: Critical theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.
- Fook, J. & Gardner, F. (2007). The Theoretical Frameworks Underlying Critical Reflection. In Practising Critical Reflection: A Resource Handbook (pp. 22-39). Maidenhead, UK: Open UP.
- Gaetz, S., Gulliver, T. and Richter, T. (2014). The State of Homelessness in Canada 2014. The Homeless Hub. Retrieved from: http://homelesshub.ca/resource/state-homelessness-canada-2014?Hub_Newsletter=&utm_term=0_dbc0a7bb5b-c264c3c072-416523717
- Hulchanski, D. J., Campsie, P., Chau, S. B.Y. , Hwang, S. W. and Paradis, E. (2009). Homelessness: What’s in a Word?. The Homeless Hub. Retrieved from: http://www.homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/Intro_Hulchanski_et_al__Homelessness_Word.pdf
- Matthews, R., (2017). The cultural erosion of indigenous people in health care. Canadian Medical Association .Journal, 189(2), E78-E79. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/10.1503/cmaj.160167
- Mullaly, B. (2010). Challenging Oppression and Confronting Privilege: A Critical Social Work Approach (2nd ed). Toronto: Oxford University Press.
- Mullaly, B. (2007). The New Structural Social Work (3rd ed.). Toronto: Oxford University Press.
- Sinclair, R., Hart, M. A. and Bruyere, G. (2009). Wicihitowin: Aboriginal Social Work in Canada. Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing.
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015). Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action. Retrieved from: http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf